When I first came to know that there were 18 ways to make a baby, I was astonished. Dr. Jamie Grifo, a specialist in reproductive endocrinology at New York University Medical Center, stated the fact during an interview that I recorded with him for this NOVA program.
Just imagine my astonishment when I realized that there were actually more ways than 18.
Before making the film, I would have been shocked to hear that there were more than three or four ways. Like many people, I was accustomed with artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and frozen embryos, but not more than that. While working on a particular program, I came to know about some latest techniques such as Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis. I was initially hard-pressed to come up with the 18 ways.
At the end I did and ran the complete list past Dr. Grifo to make sure that it was precise. And, here it is;
- Natural way
- Artificial insemination- of woman with male partner’s sperm
- Artificial insemination- of woman with donor’s sperm
- Artificial insemination- with egg and sperm donors, using a surrogate
- In vitro fertilization (IVF)- using egg and sperm of male partner
- IVF- with Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
- IVF- with frozen embryos
- IVF- with Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
- IVF- with egg donor
- IVF- with sperm donor
- IVF- with sperm and egg donor
- IVF- with surrogate mother using parents’ sperm and egg
- IVF- with egg donor and surrogate
- IVF- with sperm donor and surrogate
- IVF- with surrogate mother using her egg, sperm from child’s father
- IVF- with surrogate using egg and sperm donors*
- Cytoplasm transfer**
- Nuclear transfer and cloning
*In this case, the child born ultimately has five parents, the biological parents, the surrogate who carried baby in her womb, and the parents who will raise the child.
**The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently asked the experts that execute this experimental procedure to submit it for FDA approval, so it is not available at the moment.